MATLAB代做|FPGA代做|Python代做--PSO粒子滤波

时间：2019-2-2 16:28:07 点击：

核心提示：MATLAB代做|FPGA代做|Python代做--PSO粒子滤波...
function ParticleEx1

% Particle filter example, adapted from Gordon, Salmond, and Smith paper.

x = 0.1; % initial state
Q = 1; % process noise covariance
R = 1; % measurement noise covariance
tf = 50; % simulation length

N = 100; % number of particles in the particle filter

xhat = x;
P = 2;
xhatPart = x;

% Initialize the particle filter.
for i = 1 : N
xpart(i) = x + sqrt(P) * randn;
end
jArr = [0];
xArr = [x];
yArr = [x^2 / 20 + sqrt(R) * randn];
xhatArr = [x];
PArr = [P];
xhatPartArr = [xhatPart];

close all;

for k = 1 : tf
% System simulation
x = 0.5 * x + 25 * x / (1 + x^2) + 8 * cos(1.2*(k-1)) + sqrt(Q) * randn;%状态方程
y = x^2 / 20 + sqrt(R) * randn;%观测方程
% Extended Kalman filter
F = 0.5 + 25 * (1 - xhat^2) / (1 + xhat^2)^2;
P = F * P * F' + Q;
H = xhat / 10;
K = P * H' * (H * P * H' + R)^(-1);
xhat = 0.5 * xhat + 25 * xhat / (1 + xhat^2) + 8 * cos(1.2*(k-1));%预测
xhat = xhat + K * (y - xhat^2 / 20);%更新
P = (1 - K * H) * P;
% Particle filter
for i = 1 : N
xpartminus(i) = 0.5 * xpart(i) + 25 * xpart(i) / (1 + xpart(i)^2) + 8 * cos(1.2*(k-1)) + sqrt(Q) * randn;
ypart = xpartminus(i)^2 / 20;
vhat = y - ypart;%观测和预测的差
q(i) = (1 / sqrt(R) / sqrt(2*pi)) * exp(-vhat^2 / 2 / R);
end
% Normalize the likelihood of each a priori estimate.
qsum = sum(q);
for i = 1 : N
q(i) = q(i) / qsum;%归一化权重
end
% Resample.重采样
for i = 1 : N
u = rand; % uniform random number between 0 and 1
qtempsum = 0;
for j = 1 : N
qtempsum = qtempsum + q(j);
if qtempsum >= u
xpart(i) = xpartminus(j);
if k == 20
qArr=q;
jArr = [jArr j];
end
break;
end
end
end
% The particle filter estimate is the mean of the particles.
xhatPart = mean(xpart);
% Plot the estimated pdf's at a specific time.
if k == 20
% Particle filter pdf
pdf = zeros(81,1);
for m = -40 : 40
for i = 1 : N
if (m <= xpart(i)) && (xpart(i) < m+1)
pdf(m+41) = pdf(m+41) + 1;
end
end
end
figure;
m = -40 : 40;
plot(m, pdf / N, 'r');
hold;
title('Estimated pdf at k=20');
disp(['min, max xpart(i) at k = 20: ', num2str(min(xpart)), ', ', num2str(max(xpart))]);
% Kalman filter pdf
pdf = (1 / sqrt(P) / sqrt(2*pi)) .* exp(-(m - xhat).^2 / 2 / P);
plot(m, pdf, 'b');
legend('Particle filter', 'Kalman filter');
grid on;
end
% Save data in arrays for later plotting
xArr = [xArr x];
yArr = [yArr y];
xhatArr = [xhatArr xhat];
PArr = [PArr P];
xhatPartArr = [xhatPartArr xhatPart];
end

t = 0 : tf;

%figure;
%plot(t, xArr);
%ylabel('true state');

figure;
plot(t, xArr, 'b.', t, xhatArr, 'g-.', t, xhatArr-2*sqrt(PArr), 'r:', t, xhatArr+2*sqrt(PArr), 'r:');
axis([0 tf -40 40]);
set(gca,'FontSize',12); set(gcf,'Color','White');
xlabel('time step'); ylabel('state');
legend('True state', 'EKF estimate', '95% confidence region');
grid on;

figure;
plot(t, xArr, 'b.', t, xhatPartArr, 'k-');
set(gca,'FontSize',12); set(gcf,'Color','White');
xlabel('time step'); ylabel('state');
legend('True state', 'Particle filter estimate');
grid on;

xhatRMS = sqrt((norm(xArr - xhatArr))^2 / tf);
xhatPartRMS = sqrt((norm(xArr - xhatPartArr))^2 / tf);
disp(['Kalman filter RMS error = ', num2str(xhatRMS)]);
disp(['Particle filter RMS error = ', num2str(xhatPartRMS)]);

%qArr
%tt=max(qArr)
%t=jArr
%[m,n]=hist(jArr,100)
%m
%n
%sum(m)

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